Organization and Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2017
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Organization and Significant Accounting Policies||
Organization and Significant Accounting Policies
Organization – Central Garden & Pet Company (“Central”), a Delaware corporation, and subsidiaries (the “Company”), is a leading marketer and producer of quality branded products and distributor of third party products in the pet and lawn and garden supplies markets.
Basis of Consolidation and Presentation – The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Central and all majority-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. The fiscal year ended September 30, 2017 included 53 weeks. The fiscal years ended September 24, 2016 and September 26, 2015 each included 52 weeks.
Noncontrolling Interest – Noncontrolling interest in the Company’s consolidated financial statements represents the 20% interest not owned by the Company in a consolidated subsidiary. Since the Company controls this subsidiary, its financial statements are consolidated with those of the Company, and the noncontrolling owner’s 20% share of the subsidiary’s net assets and results of operations is deducted and reported as noncontrolling interest on the consolidated balance sheets and as net income attributable to noncontrolling interest in the consolidated statements of operations.
Use of Estimates – The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires that management make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period including realization of accounts receivable and inventory and valuation of goodwill and intangibles. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition – Sales are recognized when merchandise is shipped, risk of loss and title passes to the customer and the Company has no further obligations to provide services related to such merchandise. Discounts, volume-based rebate incentives and most cooperative advertising amounts are recorded as a reduction of sales. The Company’s practice on product returns is to accept and credit the return of unopened cases of products from customers where the quantity is small, where the product has been mis-shipped or the product is defective. Provisions are made for estimated sales returns which are deducted from net sales at the time of shipment. Sales also include shipping and handling costs billed directly to customers. The amount billed to customers for shipping and handling costs included in net sales for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2017, September 24, 2016 and September 26, 2015 was $9.4 million, $3.8 million and $5.4 million, respectively.
Cost of goods sold and occupancy consists of cost of product, inbound freight charges, purchasing and receiving costs, certain indirect purchasing, merchandise handling and storage costs, internal transfer costs as well as allocations of overhead costs, including depreciation, related to the Company’s facilities. Cost of goods sold excludes substantially all shipping and handling and out-bound freight costs to customers, which are included in selling, general and administrative expenses as delivery expenses. The cost of shipping and handling, including internal costs and payments to third parties, included in delivery expenses within selling, general and administrative expenses for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2017, September 24, 2016 and September 26, 2015 was $59.3 million, $48.9 million and $44.4 million, respectively.
Advertising Costs – The Company expenses the costs of advertising as incurred. Advertising expenses were $34.5 million, $30.0 million and $25.0 million in fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
401(k) Plans – The Company sponsors several 401(k) plans which cover substantially all employees. The Company’s matching contributions expensed under these plans were $2.4 million for fiscal 2017, $1.7 million for fiscal 2016 and $1.9 million for fiscal 2015. In fiscal 2017, 2016 and 2015, the Company’s matching contributions made in the Company’s Class A common stock resulted in the issuance of approximately 81,000, 99,000 and 195,000 shares, respectively.
Other income (expense) consists principally of earnings (losses) from equity method investments and foreign exchange gains and losses.
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred income taxes result primarily from bad debt allowances, inventory and goodwill write-downs, amortization and depreciation. The Company establishes a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets when management believes it is more likely than not a deferred tax asset will not be realized. As of fiscal year-end 2017 and 2016, the Company had valuation allowances related to various state and foreign net deferred tax assets of $6.5 million and $6.6 million, respectively.
U.S. income taxes have not been provided on undistributed earnings (approximately $2.0 million at September 30, 2017) of our foreign subsidiary since all such earnings are considered indefinitely reinvested overseas. The potential deferred tax liability associated with these earnings, net of foreign tax credits associated with the earnings, is approximately $0.3 million.
Cash and cash equivalents include cash and all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase.
Restricted cash and cash equivalents include cash and highly liquid instruments that are used as collateral for stand–alone letter of credit agreements.
Accounts receivable are carried at their estimated collectible amounts. Trade credit is generally extended on a short-term basis; thus trade receivables do not bear interest, although a finance charge may be applied to such receivables that are past due.
Allowance for doubtful accounts – Trade accounts receivable are regularly evaluated for collectability based on past credit history with customers, their expected returns and deductions and their current financial condition. See Note 5 - Allowance for Doubtful Accounts.
Inventories, which primarily consist of garden products and pet supplies finished goods, are stated at the lower of FIFO cost or market. Cost includes certain indirect purchasing, merchandise handling and storage costs incurred to acquire or manufacture inventory, costs to unload, process and put away shipments received in order to prepare them to be picked for orders, and certain other overhead costs. The amount of such costs capitalized to inventory is computed based on an estimate of costs related to the procurement and processing of inventory to prepare it for sale compared to total product purchases. See Note 6 - Inventories, net.
Land, buildings, improvements and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed by the straight-line method over 30 years for buildings. Improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the useful life of the asset or the terms of the related leases. Depreciation on equipment and capitalized software is computed by the straight-line and accelerated methods over the estimated useful lives of three to 10 years. See Note 7 - Property and Equipment, Net.
Long-Lived Assets – The Company reviews its long-lived assets, including amortizable and indefinite-lived intangible assets and property, plant and equipment, for potential impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, and annually for indefinite-lived intangible assets. An impairment loss would be recognized for amortizable intangible assets and property, plant and equipment when estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset are less than its carrying amount. An impairment loss would be recognized for an intangible asset with an indefinite useful life if its carrying value exceeds its fair value. Impairment, if any, is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of a long-lived asset exceeds its fair value. There were no impairment losses recorded in fiscal 2017. In fiscal 2016, the Company recognized non-cash asset impairment charges of approximately $1.8 million related to certain indefinite-lived intangible assets due to changes in the Company's operational strategy and declining volume of sales. In fiscal 2015, the Company recognized a non-cash $7.3 million impairment charge to certain indefinite-lived intangible assets as a result of increased competition in the marketplace and declining volume of sales. Should market conditions or the assumptions used by the Company in determining the fair value of assets change, or management changes plans regarding the future use of certain assets, additional charges to operations may be required in the period in which such conditions occur. See Note 9 – Other Intangible Assets.
Goodwill represents the excess of cost of an acquired business over the fair value of the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. Identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations are recorded based on their fair values at the date of acquisition. Goodwill is not subject to amortization but must be evaluated for impairment annually. The Company tests for goodwill impairment annually or whenever events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. See Note 8– Goodwill.
Investments – The Company owns membership interests ranging from 30%-50% in six unconsolidated companies. The Company accounts for its interest in these entities using the equity method. Equity method losses of $0.9 million in fiscal 2017, and equity method income of $0.4 million in both fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015 are included in other income (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company’s investment in these entities was $9.2 million at September 30, 2017 and $0.5 million at September 24, 2016 and is included in Other assets in the Company's consolidated balance sheets. On a combined basis, the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of these entities are not significant. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, the Company determined that its equity method investments in two unconsolidated companies were impaired as a result of changes in marketplace conditions, which impacted the expected cash flows and the recoverability of the investment. Accordingly, the Company recorded a non cash charge of approximately $16.6 million in fiscal 2016 to bring the carrying value of these investments to zero. The impairment charge is included in other income (expense) in the Company's consolidated statements of operations. See Note 3 - Acquisitions.
Accruals For Insurance – The Company maintains insurance for certain risks, including workers’ compensation, general liability and vehicle liability, and is self-insured for employee related health care benefits. The Company’s workers’ compensation, general liability and vehicle liability insurance policies include deductibles of $250,000 to $350,000 per occurrence. The Company maintains excess loss insurance that covers any health care claims in excess of $700,000 per person per year. The Company establishes reserves for losses based on its claims experience and actuarial estimates of the ultimate loss amount inherent in the claims, including claims incurred but not yet reported. Costs are recognized in the period the claim is incurred, and the financial statement accruals include an estimate of claims incurred but not yet reported.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments – At September 30, 2017 and September 24, 2016, the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents, short term investments, accounts receivable and payable, short term borrowings and accrued liabilities approximates fair value because of the short term nature of these instruments. The estimated fair value of the Company’s senior subordinated notes is based on quoted market prices for these instruments. See Note 2 - Fair Value Measurements for further information regarding the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments.
Stock-Based Compensation – Stock-based compensation cost is estimated at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is expensed ratably over the service period of the award. Total compensation costs recognized under all share-based arrangements in fiscal 2017 was $11.1 million ($7.0 million after tax), fiscal 2016 was $8.4 million ($5.3 million after tax), and fiscal 2015 was $8.3 million ($5.3 million after tax). See Note 13 - Stock-Based Compensation for further information.
Total Comprehensive Income (Loss) – Total comprehensive income (loss) consists of two components: net income and other comprehensive income (loss). Other comprehensive income (loss) refers to gains and losses that under generally accepted accounting principles are recorded directly as an element of shareholders’ equity, but are excluded from net income. Other comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of currency translation adjustments relating to the Company’s foreign subsidiary whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, unrealized gains and losses on investments classified as available for sale, as well as the reclassification of realized gains and losses on investments classified as available for sale to net income.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Pronouncements Recently Adopted
Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17 (ASU 2015-17), Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. This ASU eliminates the current requirement for entities to present deferred tax liabilities and assets as current and noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position and instead requires that deferred income tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. Although ASU 2015-17 is not effective for the Company until October 1, 2018, the Company adopted the standard on September 30, 2017. As of September 30, 2017, the Company has classified all deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent on the Company's consolidated balance sheets and retrospectively adjusted prior periods. Upon adoption, current deferred tax assets of $31.5 million in our September 24, 2016 consolidated balance sheet were reclassified as non-current.
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09 (ASU 2014-09), Revenue from Contracts with Customers. This update was issued as Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606. The core principle of this amendment is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. On July 9, 2015, the FASB deferred the effective date of ASU 2014-09 for one year. ASU 2014-09 is now effective for the Company in the first quarter of its fiscal year ending September 28, 2019.
Early adoption is permitted, but not before interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The guidance permits two implementation approaches, one requiring retrospective application of the new standard with restatement of prior years and one requiring prospective application of the new standard with disclosure of results under old standards. The Company is still in the early stages of assessing the adoption method and analyzing the impact of the adoption of this update on its consolidated financial statements. As part of its assessment work to-date, the Company has formed an implementation work team and conducted training sessions on the new ASU’s revenue recognition model and begun the process of scoping of revenue streams under the new ASU. Additionally, the Company is also analyzing the impact of the new standard on its current accounting policies and internal controls. Upon completion of these and other assessments, the Company will evaluate the impact of adopting the new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 (ASU 2016-02), Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires companies to generally recognize on the balance sheet operating and financing lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets. ASU 2016-02 is effective for the Company in its first quarter of fiscal 2020 on a modified retrospective basis and earlier adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of its pending adoption of ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements, and it currently expects that most of its operating lease commitments will be subject to the new standard and the Company will record material operating lease liabilities and right-of-use assets upon the adoption of ASU 2016-02. Information on our current operating leases can be found in Note 11 - Commitments and Contingencies.
Stock Based Compensation
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09 (ASU 2016-09), Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. ASU 2016-09 simplifies the accounting for share-based payment award transactions including: income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 is effective for annual periods and interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, or the Company's first quarter of fiscal 2018. The Company will adopt the guidance effective October 1, 2017. The ASU is expected to result in increased volatility to the Company’s income tax expense in future periods dependent upon, among other variables, the price of its common stock and the timing and volume of share-based payment award activity, such as employee exercises of stock options and vesting of restricted stock awards.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11 (ASU 2015-11), Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory. Under ASU 2015-11, inventory will be measured at the “lower of cost and net realizable value” and options that currently exist for “market value” will be eliminated. The standard defines net realizable value as the “estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation.” No other changes were made to the current guidance on inventory measurement. ASU 2015-11 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, or the Company’s first quarter of fiscal 2018. Early application is permitted and should be applied prospectively. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this standard but does not anticipate it will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
Statement of Cash Flows
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (ASU 2016-15) . The ASU provides additional clarification guidance on the classification of certain cash receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows. The new guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those years beginning after December 15, 2017 with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU 2016-15 will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force) (ASU 2016-18). This ASU clarifies the presentation of restricted cash on the statement of cash flows. Amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning and ending cash balances on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-18 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, or the Company's first quarter of fiscal 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company holds restricted cash balances of $12.6 million and $10.9 million as of September 30, 2017 and September 24, 2016, respectively. The Company is currently evaluating the impact ASU 2016-18 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, Clarifying the Definition of a Business (ASU 2017-01), which requires an evaluation of whether substantially all of the fair value of assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets. If so, the transaction does not qualify as a business. The guidance also requires an acquired business to include at least one substantive process and narrows the definition of outputs. The Company is required to apply this guidance to annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those periods, or the Company's first quarter of fiscal 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU 2017-01 will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other: Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The new guidance simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by removing the second step of the two-step impairment test. The amendment requires an entity to perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The new guidance is effective for annual periods or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, or the Company's first quarter of fiscal 2021. The amendment should be applied on a prospective basis. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The fair value of the Company’s reporting units exceeded its carrying value in its fiscal 2017 impairment analysis for goodwill and, therefore, the early adoption was not considered in fiscal 2017.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef